Here you can find  best practices, research and information on community sanctions and measures.

Council of Europe Conventions and Recommendations

Community sanctions and measures Research

Narratives of experts by experience: A journey from criminal to expert. Sage journal. (2023)
by Janika Lindström, Teemu Rantanen, and Timo Toikko.

This study focuses on the narratives of participants of a long-term expert-by-experience training programme for people with a history of crime about their past, and how they use their life experience in their work as experts by experience. The research data was collected during interviews of respondents with a history of crime (N=19). The interviews were analysed using a narrative identity framework, and the data further examined in light of various studies focused on a desistance from crime.

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The role of language in probation: A creative conversation. Probation Journal. (2023)
Phillips, J., & Bower, R.


This discussion piece emerged out of a conversation about the words we use to describe people who are engaged in and by the criminal justice system. It is underpinned by our belief that language, including the ways we describe people, has important effects in the world. The piece consists of two parts: a brief critical introduction, and a creative dialogue which reflects upon ten key words that have been used to describe people on probation.

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The penal narratives of community sentence and the role of probation (2020)

The case of the Wrocław model of community service.
Anna Matczak, The Hague University of Applied Sciences

Community Sanctions and Measures (2015)

Carr, N. (2015). Community Sanctions and Measures. In D. Healy, C. Hamilton, Y. Daly, & M. Butler (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Irish Criminology Routledge.
Queen’s University Belfast

Have Community Sanctions and measures widened the net of the European criminal justice systems (2015)

Marcelo F Aebi, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Natalia Delgrande, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Yann Marguet, University of Lausanne, Switzerland

Paying Back: 30 Years of Unpaid Work by Offenders in Scotland (2015)

Gill McIvor, Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research University of Stirling

Evaluation of Community Payback Orders, Criminal Justice Social Work Reports and the Presumption Against Short Sentences (2015)

Simon Anderson, Stephen Hinchliffe, Amy Homes, Susan
McConville and Annie Wild (ScotCen Social Research), Neil Hutton
(Strathclyde University), Simon Noble (Noble Openshaw Ltd)

Recording Community Sanctions and Measures and Assessing Attrition (2014)

A Methodological Study on Comparative Data in Europe
Markku Heiskanen, Marcelo F. Aebi, Willem van der Brugge and
Jörg-Martin Jehle (eds.) Helsinki

The Improbable Persistence of Probation and other Community Sanctions and Measures (2012)

Gwen Robinson, University of Sheffield
Fergus McNeill, University of Glasgow
Shadd Maruna, Queen’s University Belfast

A tripartite strategy for unpaid work in the community (2023)

Dr. Eoin Guilfoyle and Dr. Louise Kennefick HM Inspectorate of Probation Academic Insights 2023/07